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The inventory of the supernatural entities in the Hebrew Bible, version 002 "Behemoth"

The version 002 (codenamed: Behemoth) came earlier than initially expected. Right after the publication of Ariel I started to arrange the materials I have already collected (the entries from Dictionary of Deities and Demons, concordances prepared for various occasions, etc.) and realized there is more than enough content to justify the essential update of the biblical inventory. Even though neither of the classes is yet complete, Behemoth represents a significant progression in comparison to Ariel

  • in terms of sheer size, Behemoth is twice as massive as Ariel as it contains almost 400 units;
  • it recognizes several new SEs belonging to various classes such as, e.g., #ruach1in (angels), #pachad (demons), #itim3 (ghosts) and #yam4 (monsters);
  • it has several new thematic tags acknowledging the specificity of the biblical SEs, e.g., #cooperation/#enliven (a SE sustains life of a human); #cooperation/#transportation (a SE transports a human from one place to another); #apotropaic/#blood (a human affects a SE by means of blood); #spheresoflife/#miracle (a SE is associated with some miraculous events and acts performed by a deity or humans); #aboutentities/#hierarchy/#totem (a SE is a representative of a certain group of peoples); #aboutentities/#toponym (a name of a SE appears in a toponym).

Of much help in preparing the update was the tremendous feedback I received from the database users starting virtually from day one of the Ariel’s existence what allowed me to address numerous lesser issues present in the inventory – thank you very much!


To be expected in the next version (003 tentatively codenamed Gehenna) of the biblical database:

  • completion of the class of angels,
  • further development of the remaining classes,
  • designing even more specialized topical tags,
  • introduction of a more fine-grained partition into units.

The expected date of publication of Gehenna – the first half of 2022.


The Behemoth version of the biblical inventory has been created as a part of the grant The Construction of the Database of the Supernatural Entities in the Hebrew Bible using the System of the Elyonim veTachtonim Project (Excellence Initiative, [H.1.12.2020] MiniGRANTY POB Heritage) issued by the Jagiellonian University.

For more information about the project click here.